Morphological types

Based on morphology as much as 21 different types of clonal plants have been described. Klimes et al. (1997) used the following plant characteristics for defining these types:

  1. The clonal growth organ is either of root, of shoot origin, or is a specialized bud or plantlet formed above ground.
  2. Buds for clonal growth above or below ground.
  3. The clonal growth organ has a special adaptation for storage.
  4. The organ used for storage and clonal growth is different.
  5. The clonal growth organ is used for photosynthesis, or for anchorage.
  6. A bud bank is present and may be large or small.
  7. Clonal descendants are much smaller than the mother and resemble a seedling.
  8. Multiplication may be frequent or infrequent (in some years only).
  9. Horizontal spread is insignificant (< 0.05 m a year).
  10. There is a only a perennial primary root or an extensive perennial root system.
  11. Secondary thickening present or not.
  12. More than one organ of clonal growth.
  13. Ramets integrated for more than 2 years.
  14. Connections between mother and daughter decay after ramet initiation.